Artaxerxes was the King of Persia during the time of Nehemiah and Ezra. During his reign, he halted the rebuilding of the Temple area that his predecessor Cyrus had allowed. Later, he allowed it to continue (Ezra 6:14). During the seventh year of his reign, he allowed Ezra and a large number of Israelites to return to Jerusalem (Ezra 7:1-28). Then in his twentieth year he allowed Nehemiah to return to Jerusalem, and to rebuild the city walls (Neh. 2:1-10; 13:6).

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